Two important caveats to Berkholz’s analysis are that GitHub focused on Ruby on Rails when it launched but has since gone more mainstream; and that Windows and iOS development barely register because both are generally open source-averse. As IT World’s Phil Johnson points out in a May 7, 2014, article, while it’s dangerous to draw conclusions about language popularity based on this or any other single analysis, it seems clear the industry is diverging rather than converging.
Today’s apps require a multi-language, multi-paradigm approach
Crichton identifies three trends driving multi-language development. The first is faster adoption of new languages: GitHub and similar sites encourage broader participation in developing libraries and tutorials; and developers are more willing to learn new languages. Second, apps have to run on multiple platforms, each with unique requirements and characteristics. And third, functional programming languages are moving out of academia and into the mainstream.
Researcher Benjamin Erb suggests that rather than functional languages replacing object-oriented languages, the future will be dominated by multi-paradigm development, in particular to address concurrency requirements. In addition to supporting objects, inheritance, and imperative code, multi-paradigm languages incorporate higher-order functions, closures, and restricted mutability.
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